Best Peruvian Herbal Remedies
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Maca-Extract
What is
Alternative names
Benefits
Side Effects
Properties
How it Works
Research
Libido enhancer
Aphrodisiac
Introduction
Nutritional analysis
History
Applications
Libido and Erectile Dysfunction
Longevity Anti-Aging
Chemical Analysis
Animal Research
Human Research
Bibliography
Libido enhancer Herbal Mix

What is Maca Extract
Lepidium Meyenii An Andean product obtainded from the maca tubers that concentrate phytochemicals and nutrients. A superb Longevity herb that contains nutrients required for vitality and stress reductions as well for fitness programs. Folks attributes aphrodisiac properties.

Maca Extract
The synergy of so many amino acids, vitamins, and minerals in their natural states may increase the assimilation, uptake, and utilization of them in the body A high concentration of proteins and vital nutrients make the maca a Super Food . Suma, Maca and Maira Puama acts, when combined, act as great energizers and help regulate the endocrine, immune, muscular/skeletal and digestive systems. to learn more (click here)

Uses
Maca could solve problems related to deficiency of these amino acids, leading to lack of sexual desire and originating certain types of male and female infertility;
Properties in brief.

Properties
It is a herb capable of stimulating immune response system nutritive, tonic Provides vitality and energy, promote fertility enhancement, hormonal balancing, aphrodisiac, and, especially, enhanced sexual performance properties. Other (anecdotal) herbal medicine uses in the U.S. and abroad include increasing energy, stamina, and endurance in athletes, promoting mental clarity, treating male impotence, and helping with menstrual irregularities, female hormonal imbalances, menopause, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Anti aging.Re-establishes the physical harmony of the body

Benefits : Healing and nutritive adaptogenic herbs build stamina, strengthen and rejuvenate the body: Athlet´s Fitness and Sports.  A powerful  nutritional  super  food  that helps to increase physical  performance
Certainly the Maca it is a natural alternative to anabolic steroids
Rebuilds the body's own strength, Libido and Erectile
Reduces stress  remove  fatigue  and  depressed, possibly confused,
Re-establishes the physical harmony of the body. Aphrodisiac, Libido enhancing
Increase fertility, Improve sperm count and fertility in both sexes, Relieves problems of menstruation and helps to regulate  hormone balance. Balances estrogen and testosterone levelsLowers problems of menopause. Enhances the development of adolescents.

Introduction :

Maca is a hardy perennial plant cultivated ONLY at  high (up to14,500 feet) in the Andean mountains. It has one of the highest frost tolerances among native cultivated species. Maca has a low-growing, mat-like stem system which at times goes unnoticed in a farmer's field. Its scalloped leaves lie close to the ground and it produces small, self-fertile, off-white flowers typical of the mustard family to which it belongs. The part used is the tuberous root, which looks likes a large radish (up to 8 cm in diameter) and appears off-white to yellow in color. Unlike many other tuberous crop,  maca is propagated by seed. Although it is a perennial, it is grown as an annual; seven to nine months is required to produce the harvested roots.

History:
Maca was domesticated about 2,000 years ago by the Incas, and primitive cultivars of maca have been found in archaeological sites dating as far back as 1600 B.C.

The species L. meyenii was described by Gerhard Walpers in 1843. It has been suggested that the cultivated maca of today is not L. meyenii but a newer species L. peruvianum Chacón, based on various specimens collected since 1960 in the district of San Juan de la Jarpa, in Huancayo province. But recent investigations found that the maca root cultivated in Junin at the Meseta of BomBom  are more rich in nutrients. While most maca sold in commerce today still refers to the L. meyenii name, economic botanists believe most is L. peruvianum. In 1994 less than 50 hectares were devoted to the cultivation of maca; by 1999 over 1200 hectares were under production due to rising demand in the U.S. and abroad.  The area where maca is found, high in the Andes, is an inhospitable region of intense sunlight, violent winds, and below-freezing weather. extreme temperatures and poor, rocky soil, the area rates among the world’s worst farmland;
Where diet and nutrition are poor (a common problem in the Andes, home to so few green, leafy vegetables), maca is a vital part of the diet—providing the necessary nutrients to keep the body healthy and functioning efficiently.

To the Andean Indians and indigenous peoples, maca is a valuable treasure . Because so little else grows in the region, maca is often traded with communities at lower elevations for such other staples as rice, corn, green vegetables, and beans. The dried roots can be stored for up to seven years. Native Peruvians traditionally have utilized maca since pre-Incan times for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. It is an important staple in the diets of these people, as it has the highest nutritional value of any food crop grown there. It is rich in sugars, protein, starches, and essential nutrients (especially iodine and iron). The tuber or root is consumed fresh or dried. The fresh roots are considered a treat and are baked or roasted in ashes (in the same manner as sweet potatoes).

Nutritional Analysis :

The nutritional value of dried maca is high, It contains 60-76% carbohydrates, 11–16 % protein, 8.6% fiber, and 2.2% lipids. The protein content of maca exists mainly in the form of polypeptides and amino acids (including increased  amounts of arginine, serine, histidine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and threonine). Contains  250 mg of calcium, 2 g of potassium, and 15 mg of iron in 100 g of dried root—and important amounts of fatty acids (including linolenic, palmitic, and oleic acids). The spectral analysis found  sterols (about 0.05% to 0.1%) and other vitamins and minerals. In addition to its rich supply of essential nutrients, maca contains alkaloids, tannins, and saponins.  A chemical analysis  in 1981 found  the presence of biologically active aromatic isothiocyanates (a common chemical found in the mustard family of plants and shown to be a wood preservative and insecticide).

Chemical research shows maca root contains a chemical called p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which has reputed aphrodisiac properties. At least four alkaloids are also present but have not yet been quantified. Fresh maca root contains about 1% glucosinolates—a group of plant chemicals found in many plants in the family (ie. broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables). While there are no novel glucosinolates reported in maca yet, several of the chemicals found in this group of known plant chemicals are documented to be cancer-inhibitors.

Applications :
Scientists and Marketers found in the Peruvian maca a natural product that truly works producing truly an  effective response as an aphrodisiac  and libido enhancer. It is easy to test since it is a natural, there is no side effects so it is possible to use and feel the effects by yourselves. More over if you use the high concentrate of maca extract. Lets understand about why Men are often looking for an stimulant to increase their libido and performance.  “The Macho Men” are those guys who just want to make a party as often as they could just to feel more male than others. The great super men. But there are others who are truly in need of something to increase their libido. But the true it is that most of those men are suffering  a high stress and with such a  king of pressure they have no time to get relax and enjoy with their couple and have a  good pleasure time

USES

Male Menopause real physical change that occurs in men between the ages of 45 and 60, when the production of the male sex hormone (testosterone) begins to diminish. Even in healthy men, by the age of 55, the amount of testosterone secreted into the bloodstream is significantly lower than it was just ten years earlier. By age 80, most male hormone levels decrease to pre-puberty levels.
The amino-acids lysine and arginine found in Maca  improve  fertility mechanisms  for both men and women Arginine  constitutes 80% of male reproductive cells.

Side Effectc.
No unwanted or collateral effects have been reported at this time but those who are have allergies must cosult their doctors before to make any diet change. If you suffer of hypertension it is suggested to ask for a professional advice from a health care professional.


BENEFITS:

Athlet´s Fitness and Sports   :
A powerful  nutritional  super  food  that helps to increase physical  performance
Certainly the Maca it is a natural alternative to anabolic steroids
Rebuilds the body's own strength
Libido and Erectile :
Reduces stress  remove  fatigue  and  depressed, possibly confused,
Re-establishes the physical harmony of the body          
Aphrodisiac
Libido enhancing
Increase fertility
Improve sperm count and fertility in both sexes
Relieves problems of menstruation and helps to
regulate  hormone balance.
Balances estrogen and testosterone levels       
Lowers problems of menopause
Enhances the development of adolescents

Scientific Analysis :
Maca contains 4 alkaloids named macaina 1, 2, 3 and 4, which improve  the reproductive system oin male and females (Chacón, 1962; Garró, León, and Julca, 1993).  it is believed that such  alkaloids in Maca trigger  the calcitonine hormone that regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism and activates the parathonnone involved with same metabolism.
A great variety of essential amino acids, serine, glycine, arginine, such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, valine and lysine (Garró, 1972); Fatty acids: palmatic acids, linoleic acid and saturated fatty acids;  minerals:  Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na, K and Ca, vitamins, Thyamine (B1),Riboflavin (B2), and Vitamin C.
Glucosinolates have been found, specially benzyl isotiocyanate (Johns, 1980); this author finds that worldwide, plants with glucosinolates, like Maca, are consumed because of their action on reprod Among its components are certain sterols, (Espinoza and Poma, 1995): Brassycosterol, Ergosterol, Carnpesterol, delta 7.22 Ergostadienol, and specially Sitosterol (Dini A. et al, 1994). Correction of menopause problems and an increase in female fertility are attributed to Maca sterols and lysine; reproductive hormonal processes, and
Fructose, a monosaccharide sugar with 173.3 degree of sweetness, superior to glucose The fructose is  suggested  for reduce the effects  of  athletes'  fatigue; fructose  it is basically  a sugar  used  by seminal plasma to provide  energy to espermatozoids.

Chemical  Analysis
--------------
humidity                                         6% to 9%
proteins (g/100g)                         9 – 15
carbohydrates (g/100g)             70 – 75
fibers (g/100g)                            3 – 5
fat (g/100g(                                 1 – 2
ashes (g/100g)                           4 – 5
calcium (mg/100g)                     400 – 650
phosphor (mg/100g)                  200 – 400
magnesium (mg/100g)                90 – 110
iron (mg/100g)                              10 – 15
zinc (mg/100g)                                3 – 4
sodium (mg/100g)                         90 – 110
potassium (mg/100g)                  900 – 1100
vitamin C (mg/100g)                      20 – 30
riboflavin (mg/100g)                   0,65 - 1,0
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Alkhaloids-
Steroids                 %
Sitosterol            45.5
Campesterol      27.3
Ergosterol          13.6
Brassicasterol     9.1
Ergostadienol     4.5


How it works :
Regulates the organs which secrete hormones, the pituitary, adrenal glands, the pancreas, and the testes,  increasing testosterone levels and balancing hormone levels.  Therefore it has facility to forestall the hormonal changes of aging.

Health scientists believes that male menopause cure is Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT).  TRT is far from a satisfactory cure.  It must be administered only by a responsible physician and under strict case selection criteria and supervision.  Even more important,  it can cause serious side effects, including prostate cancer!

maca helps to regulate organs which secrete hormones, the pituitary, adrenal glands, the pancreas, and the testes,  increasing testosterone levels and balancing hormone levels.  Therefore it has facility to forestall the hormonal changes of aging.

Other Benefits
Antifatigue, aphrodisiac, Alkaloids, amino acids, beta-ecdysone, calcium, carbohydrates, iron, magnesium, p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, phosphorus, potassium, protein, saponins, sitosterol, stigmasterol, tannins, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc

Erectile Problems
Proper sexual performance for men and women is one of the hallmarks of a full and enriching lifestyle. Unfortunately, various factors, including the complexities of modern life, stress, hormonal changes, medical conditions, medication usage and aging, all lead to reduced sex drive and poor sexual performance. These problems affect both men and women. While some medications have been touted as the answer to male impotency, there are many negatives associated with its use, the most important of which are the potential for serious side effects. Moreover, for the most part, these medications have been ineffective in treating sexual dysfunction in women.
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Process and Products
The dried roots are  boiled in water or milk to make a porridge. They also prepare  into a popular sweet, fragrant, fermented drink called  “maca chichi”. In Peru even maca jam, pudding, and sodas are popular. The tuberous roots have a tangy, sweet taste and an aroma similar to that of butterscotch. This vitalized  root  is also referred to as Peruvian ginseng (although maca is not in the same family as ginseng). Maca has been used for centuries in the Andes just as food it is believed that ancient Peruvians Prepared some kind of food children : Soon after the Spanish conquest in South America, the Spanish found that their livestock were reproducing poorly in the highlands. The local Indians recommended feeding the animals maca, and so remarkable were the results that Spanish chroniclers gave in-depth reports. Even colonial records of some 200 years ago indicate that payments of (roughly) nine tons of maca were demanded from one Andean area alone for this purpose.


Modern Process
have been through an industrial process of cooking, mashing and dehydrating to yield a packaged in caps for commercial distribution
Today, dried maca roots are ground to powder and sold in capsules as
“maca extract”  a food supplement and marketed to increase stamina (sexual and athletic) and fertility. In Peruvian herbal medicine, maca is also reported to be used o boost the natural immune defenses  and to avoidr anemia, tuberculosis, menstrual disorders, menopause symptoms, stomach cancer, sterility (and other reproductive and sexual disorders), and to enhance memory.

A concentrate of maca helps with fertily problems. Scientistis in a triple blind experiment in rats found the maca  fertility-enhancing properties the findings were reported as early as 1961.
 
In that report were include the  beneficial effects of on  impotent mice and rats. Another was published a year later, indicating similar effects in male rats. Studies in 2001 reported a beneficial effect on male sperm production in rats and improvement of sperm count and motility in nine healthy adult men.
In 2002 a study reported improved sexual performance in inexperienced male rats; another “self-perception on sexual desire” test in healthy men reported aphrodisiac or libido enhancement effects.

Experiments :

Animal Research Tests :
In rat and mice tests, the animals were administered up to 4 g per kg of body weight of a “ maca extract” to achieve the reported results. This would equate to about a 300 g dosage (about 10 oz.) in an average (170 lb.) man! None of these studies, however, indicated a possible mechanism of action—or related these observed effects to constituents or chemicals contained in maca
It may well be that maca’s beneficial effects for sexual function and fertility can be explained simply by its high concentration of proteins and vital nutrients. Dried maca root contains about 10% protein—mostly derived from amino acids. Amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) are required in the diet to drive many cellular functions in the body—including sexual and fertility functions. Amino acids are required to manufacture neurotransmitters such as dopamine and noradrenaline. These substances transmit signals in the nervous system and play a major role in the process of sexual arousal and physical performance during sex. The main amino acids that these neurotransmitters require include phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine (all three of which are found in good supply in maca). The amino acid arginine, of which maca is a significant source, is thought to assist in the generation of nitric oxide—which is thought to counteract male impotence (although this is not clinically demostrated). Many libido- and sexual-enhancement health supplements on the market today contain arginine for this reason.

Human Research tests
In a 2003 double-blind placebo human trial, men taking a maca extract (1.5–3 g daily) evidenced no significant changes in any reproductive hormone level tested, including testosterone (which actually showed a slight decrease!) Consumers bombarded with these marketing claims of hormonal balancing, thyroid stimulation (and resulting weight loss), sexual and athletic performance, and others need note: the indigenous uses to which marketers refer are in dosages by the ounce and pound daily—not just a few grams. No population of super “macho men”  (with huge  sexual or athletic prowess) exists in the Andes, despite the fact that they eat, on average, five pounds of maca per week! maca is an amazing  natural source of  vital nutrients. The symbiosis of so many amino acids, vitamins, and minerals in their natural states may increase the assimilation, uptake, and utilization of them in the body. Consumers however, shouldn’t expect “miracle cures” with maca. Keep in mind that it is, in fact, a root vegetable and a main staple in the Andean indigenous diet (as beans, potatoes, and rice are elsewhere).

Libido and erectile dysfunction
Safe, healing and nutritive adaptogenic herbs build stamina, strengthen and rejuvenate the body. Lacking strength,  vigor, or vital energy. However, what most men avoid to mention impotence it  is  actually more suitable to say Erectile Dysfunction, or ED. In 1992, “the National Institutes of Health defined erectile dysfunction as the inability to attain or sustain an erection adequate for satisfactory sexual intercourse.” Treatments depends about  the  kind  of Erectile Dysfunction found in patient. For men with physical or erectile  dysfunction (85-90%), the most common treatment for Erectile Dysfunction are  drugs based "Sildefafil citrate" but modern natural medicine provides a better product without side effects a variety of maca recently found  by Cayetano Heredia University scientists

Impotence is a term that some associate with being sterile or lacking strength, vigor, or power. However, what most men mean by impotence is actually more correctly called Erectile Dysfunction, or ED. In 1992, the National Institutes of Health defined erectile dysfunction as the inability to attain or sustain an erection adequate for satisfactory sexual intercourse.
Young  men suffering from premature ejaculation often show increased histamine activity; they may be helped by a simple antihistamine, or the amino acid methionine (which counteracts the formation of histamine from histidine). It is this cellular effect at play as to why one of the side effects of prescription antihistamines is aorgasmia (or the inability/difficulty to achieve an orgasm). Conversely, men and women having difficulties achieving orgasms may be helped by histidine supplementation—this may increase histamine levels in the sexual tract, which in turn make orgasms and ejaculations easier. An additional pro-sexual effect of histidine (as well as arginine) may lie in its vasodilating effect, increasing blood flow to the sex organs. Again, the significant, natural histidine content of maca may have played a role in the rat studies reporting a greater number of copulations. But it does make one wonder—is the benefit of additional copulations at the expense of shorter duration and/or premature ejaculation? Surely this subject is best suited for truly independent (and not product-sponsored) research. "Hormonal Balance the Hey for a Healthy Reproductive system" .Maca promote the hormonal for hormonal balancing, endocrine and thyroid function enhancement, and even immune system enhancement are likely related to maca’s amino acid and nutrient content as well. The endocrine system drives many functions in the body, including the production of many types of hormones (which, in turn, regulate many other bodily processes). Although hormones are chemically diverse, they are constructed simply from amino acids and cholesterol. If given sufficient levels of starting materials (natural amino acids), the body may use them as needed to construct hormones which keep the body in balance.

Treatments vary depending on the type of "Erectile Dysfunction" encountered. For men with physical or medical impotence (85-90%), the most common and successful treatment for Erectile Dysfunction is oral drugs.

Female uses
Correction of menopause problems and an increase in female fertility are attributed to Maca sterols and lysine; among its components are certain sterols, (Espinoza and Poma, 1995): Brassycosterol, Ergosterol, Carnpesterol, delta 7.22 Ergostadienol, and specially Sitosterol (Dini A. et al, 1994). Arginine has also clinically proven to play a role in male fertility through its action of increasing sperm production and motility. It is highly likely that some of the sexual and fertility effects reported were due to maca’s high arginine content. The amino acid histidine also  found in high amounts. This amino acid plays an often-overlooked but important role in sexual function: during ejaculation and orgasm. The body utilizes histidine to produce histamine, and histamine in the corpus cavernosum (penile erectile tissue) ultimately is responsible for the way ejaculations happen.

The new standardized or concentrated extracts of maca known also as
" maca extract"  produced today are concentrating the  chemicals found by the companies selling these products in caps of 800mg per cap.
 
These biological effects of maca extract phytochemicals have  ben confirmed by scientists around the world (Books and Publications )

The incrase cultivation of maca inthe highlands of the Andes to meet the growing worldwide product demand it is hoped that will increase since many prescription medicines for longevity are start including maca in their formula .this demand will be sustained and not a trend of another passing fad. In this severely economically-depressed region, the market created for maca will offer new and important sources of income for the indigenous peoples of the Andes. About 10 cultivars there produce maca with different-colored roots ( Black Maca, Red Maca, Yellow Maca); most are the same, phytochemically. The cultivar, Lepidium peruvianum Chacón has been identified in the major growing regions of the highlands and is the main variety of choice for expanded cultivation today. It will likely supply much of this new demand.

Maca’s incredible results come from the combination of elements that produce heightened nutritional/medicinal effects.
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The today popular citrate of sildenafil  it is  used today  for Erectile Dysfunction, Viagra was an instant market success. Now several years later, feedback from users indicates it isn’t the miracle cure it was touted to be. In fact Viagra's side effects have given a number of men reason to look for Viagra Alternatives.
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Characteristics :
The Maca, has been used at the begining by men in Peru for centuries to improve energy, stamina, libido, and fertility. They remain able bodied and productive well into their 80's, and maintain sexual relationships with women throughout their lives. According to folklore, Incan warriors would consume Maca before entering into battle, making them fiercely strong. After conquering a city the Incan soldiers were forbidden from using Maca to protect the conquered women from the warriors' sexual impulses.

It is a fact that we are going to grow old, and definitely afraid to risk going outside, because we could end up falling on the ground and breaking a bone, or worse.
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Longevity - Anti-aging

Recent studies have demonstrated  that strength training by people in their 60s to 80s can improve longevity and quality of life. As we age, our bones and joints weaken. Strength exercising  not only helps support the bones and joints and lessen the impact of their weakening but also improves coordination, muscle control as well  stability and mobility.
Alderly it is simply a state of hormonal deficiency, of lacking the previously bountiful hormone of youth, it only follows that the symptoms of old age are actually symptoms that can be reversed, with a good natural hormonal therapy like maca provides. the benefits that oldies can obtain are huge as

    * Decrease fat reserves in the body
    * Increase muscle and bone mass
    * Improve your skin
    * Give your libido a boost
    * Sleep deeper and need less of it
    * Increase your energy and metabolism
    * Maintain and increase your memory
    * Intensify mental alertness and concentration
    * Improve overall physical and mental well-being

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Even in healthy men, by the age of 55, the amount of testosterone secreted into the bloodstream is significantly lower than it was just ten years earlier. By age 80, most male hormone levels decrease to pre-puberty levels. An Effective Treatment for Male Menopause,  real physical change that occurs in men between the ages of 45 and 60, when the production of the male sex hormone (testosterone) begins to diminish.

The amino-acids lysine and arginine found in Maca affect fertility for both men and women.  arginine constitutes 80% of male reproductive cells, thus, Maca could solve problems related to deficiency of these amino acids, leading to lack of sexual desire and originating certain types of male and female infertility;

A large number of essential amino acids, such as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, valine and lysine (Garró, 1972);

Fatty acids: palmatic acids, linoleic acid and saturated fatty acids;  minerals:  Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Na, K and Ca, vitamins, Thyamine (B1),Riboflavin (B2), and Vitamin C.

Maca contains 4 alkaloids named macaina 1, 2, 3 and 4, which stimulate the reproductive system of both sexes (Chacón, 1962; Garró, León, and Julca, 1993).  it is believed that the alkaloids in Maca activate the calcitonine hormone that regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism and activates the parathonnone involved with same metabolism.

Glucosinolates have been found, specially benzyl isotiocyanate (Johns, 1980); this author finds that worldwide, plants with glucosinolates, like Maca, are consumed because of their action on reproductive hormonal processes, and

Fructose, a monosaccharide sugar with 173.3 degree of sweetness, superior to glucose, is present; fructose is recommended for combating athletes' fatigue; fructose is a sugar utilized by seminal plasma to give energy to spermatozoids.

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Maca  BibliographyChacon, G. Estudio fitoquimico de Lepidium meyenii Walp Thesis, Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima, 1962.
Dini A., Migliuolo G., Rastrelli L., Saturnino P. and Schettino O., "Chemical composition of Lepidium meyenii", in Food Chemistry 49, London, UK, 1994.

Espinoza, C.L. and Poma 1. P., Determinacion de amino acidos esenciales de la maca (Lepidium meyenii) y elaboracion de una mezcla proteica a base de alimentos andinos, Thesis, Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, Huancayo, 1995

Fitomedica, "Maca, ginseng andino", in Fitomedica, Madrid, 1998.

Garro V. Nuevo sistema de solventes para cromatografia de aminoacidos y participacion cuantitativa de L-valina y L-metionina, Doctoral Thesis, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, 1972.

Garro V. Leon E. and Julca T.B., " Extraccion, separacion e identificacion por cromatografia de alcaloides de Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maka), Instituto de Quimica Organica Aplicada a la Farmacia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, VI Congreso Peruano de Farmacia y Bioquimica, October, 1993.

Horizon Herbs Strictly Medicinal Seeds Plant It In The Fall Catalog, 2002.
Johns, Timothy A., Ethnobotany and phytochemistry of Tropaeolum Tuberosum and Lepidium Meyenii from Andean South America Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, Canada, 1980. Obregon, L., Maca, Planta medicinal y nutritivo del Peru, Instituto de Fitoterapia Americana, Lima, Peru, 1998.

Garro V. Leon E. and Julca T.B., " Extraccion, separacion e identificacion por cromatografia de alcaloides de Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maka), Instituto de Quimica Organica Aplicada a la Farmacia, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, VI Congreso Peruano de Farmacia y Bioquimica, October, 1993.

Horizon Herbs Strictly Medicinal Seeds Plant It In The Fall Catalog, 2002.

Johns, Timothy A., Ethnobotany and phytochemistry of Tropaeolum Tuberosum and Lepidium Meyenii from Andean South America Ph.D. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, Canada, 1980.

Obregon, L., Maca, Planta medicinal y nutritivo del Peru, Instituto de Fitoterapia Americana, Lima, Peru, 1998.

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Antifatigue, aphrodisiac, immunostimulant, nutritive, tonic

Alkaloids, amino acids, beta-ecdysone, calcium, carbohydrates, iron, magnesium, p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, phosphorus, potassium, protein, saponins, sitosterol, stigmasterol, tannins, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc
-------------------------------------
The MACA from Corfarma is a Certify Organic Product.

Maca is a hardy perennial plant cultivated ONLY at  high (up to14,500 feet) in the Andean mountains. It has one of the highest frost tolerances among native cultivated species. Maca has a low-growing, mat-like stem system which at times goes unnoticed in a farmer's field. Its scalloped leaves lie close to the ground and it produces small, self-fertile, off-white flowers typical of the mustard family to which it belongs. The part used is the tuberous root, which looks likes a large radish (up to 8 cm in diameter) and appears off-white to yellow in color. Unlike many other tuberous plants, maca is propagated by seed. Although it is a perennial, it is grown as an annual; seven to nine months is required to produce the harvested roots. The species L. meyenii was described by Gerhard Walpers in 1843. It has been suggested that the cultivated maca of today is not L. meyenii but a newer species L. peruvianum Chacón, based on various specimens collected since 1960 in the district of San Juan de la Jarpa, in Huancayo province. While most maca sold in commerce today still refers to the L. meyenii name, economic botanists believe most is L. peruvianum. In 1994 less than 50 hectares were devoted to the cultivation of maca; by 1999 over 1200 hectares were under production due to rising demand in the U.S. and abroad.

The area where maca is found, high in the Andes, is an inhospitable region of intense sunlight, violent winds, and below-freezing weather. With its extreme temperatures and poor, rocky soil, the area rates among the world’s worst farmland; yet, over the centuries, maca has evolved to flourish under these conditions. Maca was domesticated about 2,000 years ago by the Incas, and primitive cultivars of maca have been found in archaeological sites dating as far back as 1600 B.C.

To the Andean Indians and indigenous peoples, maca is a valuable commodity. Because so little else grows in the region, maca is often traded with communities at lower elevations for such other staples as rice, corn, green vegetables, and beans. The dried roots can be stored for up to seven years. Native Peruvians traditionally have utilized maca since pre-Incan times for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. It is an important staple in the diets of these people, as it has the highest nutritional value of any food crop grown there. It is rich in sugars, protein, starches, and essential nutrients (especially iodine and iron). The tuber or root is consumed fresh or dried. The fresh roots are considered a treat and are baked or roasted in ashes (in the same manner as sweet potatoes). The dried roots are stored and, later, boiled in water or milk to make a porridge. They also are made into a popular sweet, fragrant, fermented drink called maca chicha. In Peru even maca jam, pudding, and sodas are popular. The tuberous roots have a tangy, sweet taste and an aroma similar to that of butterscotch.

This energizing plant is also referred to as Peruvian ginseng (although maca is not in the same family as ginseng). Maca has been used for centuries in the Andes to enhance fertility in humans and animals. Soon after the Spanish conquest in South America, the Spanish found that their livestock were reproducing poorly in the highlands. The local Indians recommended feeding the animals maca, and so remarkable were the results that Spanish chroniclers gave in-depth reports. Even colonial records of some 200 years ago indicate that payments of (roughly) nine tons of maca were demanded from one Andean area alone for this purpose.

The nutritional value of dried maca root is high, resembling those of cereal grains such as maize, rice, and wheat. It contains 60-75% carbohydrates, 10–14 % protein, 8.5% fiber, and 2.2% lipids. The protein content of maca exists mainly in the form of polypeptides and amino acids (including significant amounts of arginine, serine, histidine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and threonine). It also has about 250 mg of calcium, 2 g of potassium, and 15 mg of iron in 100 g of dried root—and important amounts of fatty acids (including linolenic, palmitic, and oleic acids). Maca contains sterols (about 0.05% to 0.1%) and other vitamins and minerals. In addition to its rich supply of essential nutrients, maca contains alkaloids, tannins, and saponins. A chemical analysis conducted in 1981 showed the presence of biologically active aromatic isothiocyanates (a common chemical found in the mustard family of plants and shown to be a wood preservative and insecticide). Chemical research shows maca root contains a chemical called p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanate, which has reputed aphrodisiac properties. At least four alkaloids are also present but have not yet been quantified. Fresh maca root contains about 1% glucosinolates—a group of plant chemicals found in many plants in the family (ie. broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables). While there are no novel glucosinolates reported in maca yet, several of the chemicals found in this group of known plant chemicals are documented to be cancer-preventative.

Maca has been growing in world popularity over the last several years due to several large marketing campaigns touting its energizing, fertility enhancement, hormonal balancing, aphrodisiac, and, especially, enhanced sexual performance properties. Other (anecdotal) herbal medicine uses in the U.S. and abroad include increasing energy, stamina, and endurance in athletes, promoting mental clarity, treating male impotence, and helping with menstrual irregularities, female hormonal imbalances, menopause, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Today, dried maca roots are ground to powder and sold in capsules as a food supplement and marketed to increase stamina (sexual and athletic) and fertility. In Peruvian herbal medicine, maca is also reported to be used as an immunostimulant, for anemia, tuberculosis, menstrual disorders, menopause symptoms, stomach cancer, sterility (and other reproductive and sexual disorders), and to enhance memory.

Maca’s fertility-enhancing properties were reported as early as 1961, when researchers discovered that it increased fertility in rats. Marketing and resulting sales of maca for sexual function has been fueled by clinical research since. The majority of this research, however, has been performed or funded by two main marketers of maca products in the U.S. and abroad! Also suspect to the independent scientific community are studies that “measure libido enhancement”—these are known to be highly subjective. Study protocols can also be orchestrated easily to provide desired outcomes and results therefore, many trained industry and medical professionals note this brand of (product-sponsored) research with only mild interest, at best. The first study reporting maca’s effect on sexual function was published in 2000 (and performed by a marketer of maca) that reported the beneficial effects of using maca in impotent mice and rats. Another was published a year later, indicating similar effects in male rats. Studies in 2001 reported a beneficial effect on male sperm production in rats and improvement of sperm count and motility in nine healthy adult men. In 2002 a study reported improved sexual performance in inexperienced male rats; another “self-perception on sexual desire” test in healthy men reported aphrodisiac or libido enhancement effects. In several of the rat and mice studies, the animals were administered up to 4 g per kg of body weight of a “concentrated maca extract” to achieve the reported results. This would equate to about a 300 g dosage (about 10 oz.) in an average (170 lb.) man! None of these studies, however, indicated a possible mechanism of action—or related these observed effects to constituents or chemicals contained in maca root

It may well be that maca’s beneficial effects for sexual function and fertility can be explained simply by its high concentration of proteins and vital nutrients. Dried maca root contains about 10% protein—mostly derived from amino acids. Amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) are required in the diet to drive many cellular functions in the body—including sexual and fertility functions. Amino acids are required to manufacture neurotransmitters such as dopamine and noradrenaline. These substances transmit signals in the nervous system and play a major role in the process of sexual arousal and physical performance during sex. The main amino acids that these neurotransmitters require include phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine (all three of which are found in good supply in maca). The amino acid arginine, of which maca is a significant source, is thought to assist in the generation of nitric oxide—which is thought to counteract male impotence (although this is not clinically validated). Many libido- and sexual-enhancement health supplements on the market today contain arginine for this reason. Arginine has also clinically proven to play a role in male fertility through its action of increasing sperm production and motility. It is highly likely that some of the sexual and fertility effects reported were due to maca’s high arginine content.

The amino acid histidine also is found in maca root in high amounts. This amino acid plays an often-overlooked but important role in sexual function: during ejaculation and orgasm. The body utilizes histidine to produce histamine, and histamine in the corpus cavernosum (penile erectile tissue) ultimately is responsible for the way ejaculations happen. Men suffering from premature ejaculation often show increased histamine activity; they may be helped by a simple antihistamine, or the amino acid methionine (which counteracts the formation of histamine from histidine). It is this cellular effect at play as to why one of the side effects of prescription antihistamines is aorgasmia (or the inability/difficulty to achieve an orgasm). Conversely, men and women having difficulties achieving orgasms may be helped by histidine supplementation—this may increase histamine levels in the sexual tract, which in turn make orgasms and ejaculations easier. An additional pro-sexual effect of histidine (as well as arginine) may lie in its vasodilating effect, increasing blood flow to the sex organs. Again, the significant, natural histidine content of maca may have played a role in the rat studies reporting a greater number of copulations. But it does make one wonder—is the benefit of additional copulations at the expense of shorter duration and/or premature ejaculation? Surely this subject is best suited for truly independent (and not product-sponsored) research.

Other benefits and anecdotal reports touting maca for hormonal balancing, endocrine and thyroid function enhancement, and even immune system enhancement are likely related to maca’s amino acid and nutrient content as well. The endocrine system drives many functions in the body, including the production of many types of hormones (which, in turn, regulate many other bodily processes). Although hormones are chemically diverse, they are constructed simply from amino acids and cholesterol. If given sufficient levels of starting materials (natural amino acids), the body may use them as needed to construct hormones which keep the body in balance. Where diet and nutrition are poor (a common problem in the Andes, home to so few green, leafy vegetables), maca is a vital part of the diet—providing the necessary nutrients to keep the body healthy and functioning efficiently.

The marketing claim made that maca actually increases testosterone or sex hormones has been clinically disproved just recently. In a 2003 double-blind placebo human trial, men taking a maca root extract (1.5–3 g daily) evidenced no significant changes in any reproductive hormone level tested, including testosterone (which actually showed a slight decrease!) Consumers bombarded with these marketing claims of hormonal balancing, thyroid stimulation (and resulting weight loss), sexual and athletic performance, and others need note: the indigenous uses to which marketers refer are in dosages by the ounce and pound daily—not just a few grams. No population of superhumans (with incredible sexual or athletic prowess) exists in the Andes, despite the fact that they eat, on average, five pounds of maca per week!

Make no doubt—maca is a wonderful source of natural vital nutrients. The synergy of so many amino acids, vitamins, and minerals in their natural states may increase the assimilation, uptake, and utilization of them in the body. Consumers however, shouldn’t expect “miracle cures” with maca. Keep in mind that it is, in fact, a root vegetable and a main staple in the Andean indigenous diet (as beans, potatoes, and rice are elsewhere). Taking a few 500 mg capsules or tablets likely will not be of much benefit—or live up to wild marketing claims.

The new standardized or concentrated extracts of maca available today are concentrating the the chemicals found by the companies selling these products and funding the research. These chemicals and their biological effects have yet to be confirmed by independent research. In the

absence of true, independent science and research, consumers will be judging the efficacy and benefits of these extracts with money spent for them.
The cultivation of maca is increasing in the highlands of the Andes to meet the growing demand worldwide; it is hoped that this demand will be sustained and not a trend of another passing fad. In this severely economically-depressed region, the market created for maca will offer new and important sources of income for the indigenous peoples of the Andes. About 10 cultivars there produce maca with different-colored roots; most are the same, phytochemically. The cultivar, Lepidium peruvianum Chacón has been identified in the major growing regions of the highlands and is the main variety of choice for expanded cultivation today. It will likely supply much of this new demand.

One of the main U.S. maca marketers (and which funded much of the clinical research) recently has come under quite a bit of negative press in Peru,

The world’s exporter of maca, as well as in Europe and the U.S. The marketing company was granted plant use patents in the U.S. (also pending in Europe and Australia) on the use of maca for fertility and aphrodisiac purposes. If these patents are enforced, it could prevent maca extracts of Peruvian origin from being imported into the United States and abroad. In 2002, a coalition of maca farmers and international activists was formed; its members purport that patenting indigenous knowledge is morally wrong and unacceptable. The coalition wants the Peruvian government and the World Intellectual Property Organization to condemn claims that steal traditional knowledge from farming communities and indigenous peoples. After all—maca has been used by the indigenous people of the Peruvian Andes for centuries and this marketing company learned of its uses through them.

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Bibliography

Maca, Anti-Aging Hormone Regulator
by Viana Muller

MACA - Adaptogen and Hormonal Regulator.
Paperback: 48 pages
Publisher: BL Publications; (January 1, 2003)
ISBN: 1890766259
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Borrador
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humidity                                         6% to 9%
proteins (g/100g)                         9 - 15
carbohydrates (g/100g)             70 - 75
fibers (g/100g)                            3 -

Future and Life
El Comercio  May 6th 2003
----------------------
A  Millenary Energy for first time discovered

The Maca must be taken day and night to get results

Future and Life
El Comercio  May 6th 2003
----------------------

The Maca must be taken day and night to get results (The Maca must be taken daily three times , day and night)

Very early at the morning the andean people who lives at the high mountains, prepare a
delicious viscous jelly  that provides enough energy for all day.  The fruit to prepare the first  meal of the day is known as  Maca,  a fruit who have strong  nutritive properties, according to Dr. Ricardo Murrieta a research from the Gerontoly Institute of the Cayetano Heredia University.  It is not to excessive to say the tremendous energetic potential of the fruit, but in order to obtain good results with a  Maca treatment it is required to take large quantities,  say Dr. Murrieta.

The Andean people not only eat the The Maca as a jelly at the morning but also as a lunch and some times at night. this is one of the reasons how the andean people adapts to  the andean highlands deepest cool.

The specialist assure that a minimum daily dossage  of the Maca must be six to nine tabs a day for the maca tabs obtained from  farmaceutical industrial  process. The other products that have been produced with Maca such as ice cream and candies  does not have the same nutritive  properties since they are combined with other chemical substances.

I like to suggest to my patients that in order to obtain the positive effects they must persevere with the maca consumption otherwise they will not experience the minimum results. say the specialist.

Many people thinks that the Maca is ideal to fight against the stress   because they improve the physical and mental energy of the adults and elders,  this is because in its composition  includes carbohidrates, lipids and steroids, proteins, fiber acid grease aminoacids  and minerals.

There is a group of valuable substances such as glucosinolatos because their capacity to protect the human organism against cancer,  this substance is found in considerable amount in the maca composition, that is why the importance of this fruit  against the cancer treatment. In addition is an excellent antioxidant providing a better muscular and cardio vascular performance and sexual trigger.

Nutritive:

Amino acids
Carbohydrates
Minerals (calcium, phosphorus , zinc, magnesium and iron)
Vitamin B1, B2 and B12
Vitamin C
Vitamin E
Steroid Glycoside

Caloric eneergy 100 grms kcal. Increase the testosterona levels It is a fact that we are going to grow old, but we need to grow old the way our relatives have:
frail, fatigued, depressed, possibly confused, and definitely afraid to risk going outside, because we could end up falling on the ground and breaking a bone, or worse.
--------------------------------------------
Because we now know that old age is simply a state of hormonal deficiency, of lacking the previously bountiful hormone of youth, it only follows that the symptoms of old age are actually symptoms that can be reversed, with HGH Life

    * Decrease fat reserves in the body
    * Increase muscle and bone mass
    * Improve your skin
    * Give your libido a boost
    * Sleep deeper and need less of it
    * Increase your energy and metabolism
    * Maintain and increase your memory
    * Intensify mental alertness and concentration
    * Improve overall physical and mental well-being

The Peruvian MACA
It is a natural andean energy booster
a superb anti-aging Hormone Regulator. 100% Certify Organic Product
obtained from the Peruvian Andeas.

Effective Treatment for Male andropause if you are looking for an Effective Treatment for Male Menopause,  real physical change that occurs in men between the ages of 45 and 60, when the production of the male sex hormone (testosterone) begins to diminish.

Even in healthy men, by the age of 55, the amount of testosterone secreted into the bloodstream is significantly lower than it was just ten years earlier. By age 80, most male hormone levels decrease to pre-puberty levels.

The amino-acids lysine and arginine found in Maca affect fertility for both men and women.  arginine constitutes 80% of male reproductive cells.

Bibliography

Maca Bibliography Chacon, G. Estudio fitoquimico de Lepidium meyenii Walp Thesis, Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima, 1962.
Dini A., Migliuolo G., Rastrelli L., Saturnino P. and Schettino O., "Chemical composition of Lepidium meyenii", in Food Chemistry 49, London, UK, 1994.
Espinoza, C.L. and Poma 1. P., Determinacion de amino acidos esenciales de la maca (Lepidium meyenii) y elaboracion de una mezcla proteica a base de alimentos andinos, Thesis, Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú, Huancayo, 1995
Fitomedica, "Maca, ginseng andino", in Fitomedica, Madrid, 1998.
Maca, Anti-Aging Hormone Regulator
by Viana Muller
MACA - Adaptogen and Hormonal Regulator.
Paperback: 48 pages  Publisher: BL Publications; (January 1, 2003) ISBN: 1890766259

1 "Physiological Studies and Determination of Chromosome Number in Maca, Lepidium meyenii" by Carlos Quiros, A. Epperson, J. Hu and M. Holle. Econ Bot 50 (2) 216-223, 1996. “Dry maca hypocotyls have the following composition: 59% carbohydrates, 10.2% proteins, 8.5% fiber and 2.2% lipids. Maca has a large amount of essential amino acids and higher levels of iron and calcium than a white potato. In addition, it contains important amounts of fatty acids, of which linolenic, palmitic and oleic acids are the most prominent. Maca is also rich in sterols and has high mineral content, in particular, iron, calcium and copper. Alkaloids are also present, but these have yet to be quantified.”

 

what is Maca
A nutritional adaptogenic root that help to build stamina, strengthen and turn back the clock time .it is a natural alternative to anabolic steroids
Rebuilds the body's own strength
Alternative names
Maca powder, maca root, maca
maca concentrated, maca extract, macca, makka.
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Copyright 2002 Peruherbals Inc
Disclaimer: The information presented is for information purposes only. It is based on scientific studies or traditional usage. Consult a health care professional before using supplements or making any changes in prescribed medications. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.